A pervasive fiction has permeated a particular historical narrative regarding hockey’s history in North America. This narrative suggests that violence is woven tightly into the fabric of hockey, due to the prevalence of violent incidents in the history of the game. Many authors, especially those writing for popular audiences, have argued that simply because violent incidents have been recorded throughout the history of hockey, violence must have been condoned in the past, and therefore should continue to be a part of the game. The purpose of this study is to examine the early history of hockey violence by evaluating media reactions to violence, as published in Canadian newspapers from 1875–1911. This article evaluates the relationship between melodrama and hockey reporting during the first years of organized hockey in western Canada. To conduct this appraisal, specific attention is paid to the language used by reporters to characterize violent play, a lexicon shaped by sensationalist trends in Canadian media that mirrored the theatrical tradition of melodrama. Through the lens of performativity, newspaper reporters demonstrated an active resistance to violence present from the first days of organized hockey in North America.
The December, 2014 announcement by Raúl Castro and Barack Obama regarding the "thaw" of the US-Cuba diplomatic relations opens up new possibilities. Sport, specifically baseball, represents an area of opportunity for the approachment of both countries. MLB baseball is increasingly dependent on the inflow of foreign talent, especially on Latin American players. The status of the Cuban player is peculiar and it could normalize as a result of the full normalization of the diplomatic relations. This paper analyzes the economic incentives as well as the existing legal challenges in the US-Cuba interdependent relationship. Finally, the argument suggests that baseball could pave the way for a constructivist approach of other specific US-Cuba relationships, partially replacing the high politics that has dominated the bilateral relationship for more than five decades.
The disparity between established ethnic categories, and more complex descriptions of ethnic identity is explored in this work, in relation to young people involved in school sport. In order to achieve the research aim a mixed method approach was utilised combining grounded theory modelling, plus adopting a critical realist stance. Initial data identified 29 ethnic minority young people as determined by parents / guardians. The young people utilised a self-classification system through a questionnaire and were then interviewed. The results indicated a diversity of stated identity for all the participants, with the interviews revealing the greatest degree of variety in relation to hyphenated identities, which was closely linked to place of birth current home and religion. Sports policy which identifies ethnic minorities as an homogenous group collectively fail to distinguish between the diversity of the population. There is an obligation for policy makers to consider adaptations of ethnic categories to allow respondents to state their own identity rather than conforming to a prescriptive list. Through focusing on individuals and their stated identities, policy should steer practice to enable research to endeavour to study more closely defined groups which reflect identity, and seek to explore each of these in detail.