Boys Will Be Boys: Assessing Attitudes of Athletic Officials on Sexism and Violence against Women

The purpose of this research is to explore how athletic officials identify and understand violence against women. Scholars theorize that hegemonic forms of masculinity that depict men as strong, aggressive, and dominant may be perpetuated by sports culture; thus, coaches can be an effective site of intervention for changing this culture. Therefore, it is important to determine how the influential relationship between athletes and athletic coaches can be used to promote healthy gender relations within communities. This study uses a qualitative approach to assess athletic coaches’ knowledge and beliefs on issues related to masculinity, sexism, and violence against women. This study showcases the logical fallacies athletic coaches use to justify the presence of violence against women in athletics. Furthermore, this research identifies athletic coaches’ conflict over the roles they play in their athletes’ lives. Due to limited and conflicting research in this area, it is important to offer insight into the ability of athletic coaches to act as mentors to athletes in order to prevent sexual and domestic violence and promote healthy masculinity.

The Rink and the Stage: Melodrama, Media, and Canadian Hockey

A pervasive fiction has permeated a particular historical narrative regarding hockey’s history in North America. This narrative suggests that violence is woven tightly into the fabric of hockey, due to the prevalence of violent incidents in the history of the game. Many authors, especially those writing for popular audiences, have argued that simply because violent incidents have been recorded throughout the history of hockey, violence must have been condoned in the past, and therefore should continue to be a part of the game. The purpose of this study is to examine the early history of hockey violence by evaluating media reactions to violence, as published in Canadian newspapers from 1875–1911. This article evaluates the relationship between melodrama and hockey reporting during the first years of organized hockey in western Canada. To conduct this appraisal, specific attention is paid to the language used by reporters to characterize violent play, a lexicon shaped by sensationalist trends in Canadian media that mirrored the theatrical tradition of melodrama. Through the lens of performativity, newspaper reporters demonstrated an active resistance to violence present from the first days of organized hockey in North America.

The Role of Baseball in the Normalization of Cuba-US Relations

The December, 2014 announcement by Raúl Castro and Barack Obama regarding the "thaw" of the US-Cuba diplomatic relations opens up new possibilities. Sport, specifically baseball, represents an area of opportunity for the approachment of both countries. MLB baseball is increasingly dependent on the inflow of foreign talent, especially on Latin American players. The status of the Cuban player is peculiar and it could normalize as a result of the full normalization of the diplomatic relations. This paper analyzes the economic incentives as well as the existing legal challenges in the US-Cuba interdependent relationship. Finally, the argument suggests that baseball could pave the way for a constructivist approach of other specific US-Cuba relationships, partially replacing the high politics that has dominated the bilateral relationship for more than five decades.