Bullying of students by other students has been an ongoing concern over many years. Many schools have initiated policies and trainings related to bullying in attempts to prevent and stop students from bullying. However, an area not yet well researched is the topic of bullying by teachers or coaches toward students, particularly those who are student-athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of former athletes in regards to the abusive actions of their former high school sport coaches. Participants for this study included 920 college students from universities located in nine states across the United States. Participants were equally divided by gender. Data were gathered via an online survey in which participants identified if their coaches had engaged in any of the twenty-four listed actions among three types of bullying (physical, relational, verbal). Participants identified whether these actions were directed toward them or if they had seen them being done to fellow athletes. The results indicated that the most frequently identified incidents for high school athletes were being embarrassed by their coaches in front of others, coaches poking fun at them, name calling without hurtful intent, dirty looks meant to hurt, and critical comments meant to hurt.
With the growth of environmental consciousness over the last three decades, major automobile racing circuits in the United States and around the world have started green initiatives. This article will provide an examination of recent press reports, United Nations studies, press releases, and research to consider whether these green initiatives have made a positive difference in terms of environmental impact, or whether they are changes with little substance designed to maintain the public’s goodwill. Particularly relevant is the debate over the use of cleaner-burning fuels such as ethanol. Specifically, the question exists of whether the use of fuels with cleaner emissions outweighs problems that arise from these fuels’ production. Public perceptions of these green initiatives will also be discussed, as major racing series, such as NASCAR and the Indy Racing League, publicize initiatives in marketing efforts. Using mostly anecdotal evidence, this article is an analysis of recent literature on the subject. Implications of questions relating automobile racing to various needs for natural resources around the world are broad, as consumers, scientists, and governments must consider the long-term effects of recent drives to reduce petroleum consumption and pollution.
In this article, we review the major dimensions of the sports celebrity literature on David Beckham. We identify first and second ages of Beckham’s celebrity, describing a shift from the emphasis on his status as a sports star toward a mainstream celebrity that resonates more broadly than his original career, specifically in terms of fashion, family, and lifestyle. Throughout both stages, however, there has been a focus on his representation of masculinity, particularly in terms of how he both reflected and contributed to transformations in masculinity toward a more “metrosexual” norm. We then argue that the emphasis on Beckham’s athletic prowess will return to centre stage in the next phase of his celebrity. Although this may be understood chronologically as his “third” phase of stardom, we suggest that it will emerge because Beckham has reached the threshold of the sociological, rather than chronological, “Third Age.” Using the example of Beckham, we argue that the key components that ageing celebrities model for the Third Age have a keen affinity with the qualities associated with sports stars. We conclude, therefore, that we will see an increasing use of ageing and retired sports celebrities to model and promote Third Age identities and lifestyles to ageing consumers, in a way that reintroduces their athleticism as central to their celebrity status.