“Say What?”: An Overview and Proposition of the Dissonance-Threat Model of Fan Behavior

Women’s sports in Australia have traditionally been placed a distant second to men’s sports. Such second-rate treatment has been obvious through remuneration and media interest. Nevertheless, the last three years have seen the establishment of the inaugural women’s Australian Rules football competition, a new Australian “National Netball League,” and the Women’s Big Bash League (WBBL) cricket competition. All of these sporting competitions have one thing in common, that is, media interest. All competitions have broadcast deals with major television networks in Australia. The message in the sports media in Australia is that women’s sports are taking over our screens, being remunerated more handsomely, and becoming more high profile. However, there remain enormous disparities between male and female athletes and sporting competitions. These disparities focus on the amount of media coverage received by male and female sporting competitions and the remuneration paid to male and female athletes. In particular, this study focuses on the Australian Rules football competition and the WBBL competition in Australia. These themes will be analysed using a third-wave feminist lens to more clearly understand the differences (or similarities) between men’s and women’s in sport in Australia.

Hollow Ring: Race, Spectacle, and the Mayweather/McGregor Fight

The notion of what constitutes a “race fight” is a complex and multivalent issue, not simply relegated to “black” versus “white.” The Mayweather/McGregor fight that took place on August 26, 2017, constituted one of the most profitable pay-per-view spectacles in history. However, despite the way race within the Mayweather/McGregor fight was mediated, the question of race in this fight is more nuanced and worthy of serious academic attention. This commentary establishes a partial typography of American “race fights” throughout history and argues that the Mayweather/McGregor fight was primarily a “commodified spectacle” and not simply a representation of black versus white in the boxing space. For the purposes of this article, a “race fight” is an event that is deliberately conceived and promoted and with the intention of exploiting racial difference. As such, a “race fight” does not necessitate two fights with different skin colours. Rather, a “race fight” consciously contests notions of racial identity within the boxing ring. This article argues that the Mayweather/McGregor fight does not fit the traditional typography of a “race fight,” as exemplified throughout boxing history. Race in the sport reflects the politics of the time. Mayweather/McGregor, while an example of a racialized space, is not a reflection of the politics of race but, rather, a commodified spectacle of wealth and excess.

Understanding Gender Differences in Collegiate Student-Athletes’ Help-Seeking Behaviors and Attitudes toward Counseling

This study investigated specific factors that may impact attitudes and expectations about counseling by assessing athletic identity, attitudes toward help-seeking behavior, and expectations about counseling of 408 university student athletes. Participants were 414 athletes from a Northeastern university in the USA (M = 19.72, SD = 1.34). Measures were the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPHS), the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), and the Expectations about Counseling Questionnaire (EAC). Data indicated significant differences between males and females on the ATSPPHS (F(1, 404) = 40.47, p = .001); the AIMS, (F(1, 404) = 15.17, p = .001), and the EAC (F(1, 403) =13.05, p = .001). For both male ( = -0.205) and female ( = -0.232) student athletes, expectations about counseling were a significant predictor of attitudes toward counseling. However, athletic identity did not contribute significantly to the variability in attitude scores in this sample. Given these findings, it will be important for professional personnel addressing student athletes to consider presenting the information about counseling services in a gender-specific manner. In addition, it would be helpful for programming on counseling services for student athletes to address the counseling process and how one participates in counseling.